A stroke is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the brain, typically due to a blockage or rupture that interrupts blood flow. Without sufficient oxygen and nutrients from the blood, the damage can lead to a host of neurological problems and result in nerve cells in the brain being damaged or dying.
This can cause a wide range of neurological symptoms including dementia.
During a stroke, changes occur throughout the body as it tries to compensate for the loss of oxygenated blood. These changes include:
Increased heart rate and blood pressure, which can lead to further damage to brain cells if left untreated;
Swelling in certain areas of the brain, which may impair function or cause permanent damage;
Nerve cell death throughout the brain and nervous system, leading to cognitive and neurological problems such as dementia.